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[Agler’s Symbolic Logic, entry directory]
Sections 1.1-1.2: Propositions – Arguments
Symbolic logic is a branch of logic that represents how we ought to reason by using a formal language consisting of abstract symbols. These abstract symbols, their method of combination, and their meanings (interpretations) provide a precise, widely applicable, and highly efficient language in which to reason.
Propositions are the bearers of truth and falsity, while an argument is a series of propositions separated by those that are premises (or assumptions) and those that are conclusions.
Proposition: A proposition is a sentence (or something expressed by a sentence) that is capable of being true or false.
Argument: An argument is a series of propositions in which a certain proposition (a conclusion) is represented as following from a set of premises or assumptions.